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http://hdl.handle.net/10609/125286
Title: Audio watermarking based on Fibonacci numbers
Author: Fallahpour, Mehdi
Megías Jiménez, David  
Others: University of Ottawa
Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC)
Keywords: multimedia security
audio watermarking
fibonacci numbers
golden ratio
Issue Date: Aug-2015
Publisher: IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing
Citation: Fallahpour, M. & Megías, D. (2015). Audio watermarking based on Fibonacci numbers. IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing, 23(8), 1.273-1.282. doi: 10.1109/TASLP.2015.2430818
Also see: https://doi.org/10.1109/TASLP.2015.2430818
Abstract: This article presents a novel high capacity audio watermarking system to embed data and extract them in a bit-exact manner by changing some of the magnitudes of the FFT spectrum. The key idea is to divide the FFT spectrum into short frames and change the magnitude of the selected FFT samples using Fibonacci numbers. Taking advantage of Fibonacci numbers, it is possible to change the frequency samples adaptively. In fact, the suggested technique guarantees and proves, mathematically, that the maximum change is less than 61% of the related FFT sample and the average error for each sample is 25%. Using the closest Fibonacci number to FFT magnitudes results in a robust and transparent technique. On top of very remarkable capacity, transparency and robustness, this scheme provides two parameters which facilitate the regulation of these properties. The experimental results show that the method has a high capacity (700 bps to 3 kbps), without significant perceptual distortion (ODG is about -1) and provides robustness against common audio signal processing such as echo, added noise, filtering and MPEG compression (MP3). In addition to the experimental results, the fidelity of suggested system is proved mathematically.
Language: English
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10609/125286
ISSN: 1558-7916MIAR
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