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dc.contributor.authorFallahpour, Mehdi-
dc.contributor.authorMegías Jiménez, David-
dc.contributor.otherUniversity of Ottawa-
dc.contributor.otherUniversitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC)-
dc.identifier.citationFallahpour, M. & Megías, D. (2015). Audio watermarking based on Fibonacci numbers. IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing, 23(8), 1.273-1.282. doi: 10.1109/TASLP.2015.2430818en
dc.description.abstractThis article presents a novel high capacity audio watermarking system to embed data and extract them in a bit-exact manner by changing some of the magnitudes of the FFT spectrum. The key idea is to divide the FFT spectrum into short frames and change the magnitude of the selected FFT samples using Fibonacci numbers. Taking advantage of Fibonacci numbers, it is possible to change the frequency samples adaptively. In fact, the suggested technique guarantees and proves, mathematically, that the maximum change is less than 61% of the related FFT sample and the average error for each sample is 25%. Using the closest Fibonacci number to FFT magnitudes results in a robust and transparent technique. On top of very remarkable capacity, transparency and robustness, this scheme provides two parameters which facilitate the regulation of these properties. The experimental results show that the method has a high capacity (700 bps to 3 kbps), without significant perceptual distortion (ODG is about -1) and provides robustness against common audio signal processing such as echo, added noise, filtering and MPEG compression (MP3). In addition to the experimental results, the fidelity of suggested system is proved mathematically.en
dc.publisherIEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing-
dc.relation.ispartofSpeech and Language Processing, 2015, 23(8)-
dc.rights(c) Journal-
dc.subjectmultimedia securityen
dc.subjectaudio watermarkingen
dc.subjectfibonacci numbersen
dc.subjectgolden ratioen
dc.subjectseguridad multimediaes
dc.subjectmarca de agua de audioes
dc.subjectnúmeros de fibonaccies
dc.subjectproporción áureaes
dc.subjectseguretat multimèdiaca
dc.subjectmarca d'aigua d'àudioca
dc.subjectnombres de fibonaccica
dc.subjectproporció àuriaca
dc.subject.lcshComputer securityen
dc.titleAudio watermarking based on Fibonacci numbers-
dc.subject.lemacSeguretat informàticaca
dc.subject.lcshesSeguridad informáticaes
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