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Title: Les polítiques de permisos parentals com a element clau per trencar el sostre de vidre i la bretxa salarial
Author: Edo Jové, Alba
Tutor: Grau Grau, Marc
Keywords: gender inequality
labor inequality
parental leave
gender studies
Issue Date: 29-Jun-2019
Abstract: This thesis was conceived with the objective of relating parental leave policies to the gender bias in the labour market and in unpaid work, consisting of home and family care. The study is framed in the current Spanish context, against the background of the recently approved Royal Decree-Law 6/2019 of March 1st, and relates it to the reality of parental leave policies in Europe in order to draw conclusions on the suitability of its implementation. To achieve this objective, the thesis has been divided into three parts. In the first part, the gender gap in the Spanish context has been characterized. Gender biases have been taken into account in the labour market and in the distribution of household tasks and the care of children. From the information gathered in the research phase, it was possible to situate the country in terms of family structure, within the socioeconomic typology of "one-and-a-half breadwinner" with a significant burden of unpaid domestic work on women. This burden either imposes on them the double presence or expels them from the labour force population. In the second part, based on a review of literature and the different legal systems, the policies of parental leave in Europe have been analyzed as well as their characteristics and their transformative capacity of the sexual division of labour. This research has enabled the identification of key elements and representative countries of the different policy typologies. That has served as a basis for the study of the last part of the thesis. In the third part, by means of published official statistics and Brighouse & Wright's classification -modified to adapt to the reality of the different countries-, the relationship between the configuration of parental leave in Europe and the gender inequalities in the labour market and in the domestic sphere has been empirically studied. In particular, the analysis has been performed about the wage gap and the glass ceiling on one the hand, and on the other hand about the degree of imbalance in the assumption of unpaid work, consisting of home and family care. The main conclusion, both in one sphere and in the other, is that in the European context those countries that present parental leave policies that impede effective equality obtain more evident gender biases. Regarding the policies that establish the context for equality and those that can be considered to promote it, it has not been possible to establish whether one or the other has a greater or lesser impact on gender bias. This suggests that, in reality, all of them are at a more primitive stage than initially considered, and means that until non-transferable parental leave is established and paid at a high level of coverage, the disruptive change needed to end the segregation of roles in productive/reproductive work will not be obtained. Finally, within the same study, a global ranking has been constructed based on gender gaps regarding the uses of time, the relation part-time/having children and income. The results of this more global view lead to the identification of a pattern of connection between typologies of parental leave policies and gender equality (or inequality) in different societies. This enables the recognition that while the new Spanish law may advance along the path of co-responsibility in the domestic sphere, it will be difficult to change the labour sphere as long as the childcare leave that complements maternity and paternity leave has the current configuration of unpaid entitlement.
Language: Catalan
Appears in Collections:Trabajos finales de estudios de género
Treballs finals de carrera, treballs de recerca, etc.

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