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Title: Quality assurance, internationalization, and ranking of higher education institutions in the context of the Syrian War
Author: Kayyali, Mustafa  
Marcos Ortega, Sandra
Abstract: It is very difficult to maintain stable and advanced conditions for the functioning of higher education institutions in exceptional cases that universities might stand against, or in the unstable situations that any higher education institution might face such as low funding, failure in management, poor planning, low student enrollment or any other reasons.In the event of such cases, HEIs can request support or funding from the government, independent funders, or international bodies. In the event that obtaining support is not possible, or if the steps to change management or develop the strategy, or the use of experts or attract new students are of no use, HEI can request to merge with another university so that the new merged university (consisting of the two universities) will be more able to deal with these urgent difficulties, and more able to develop plans that contribute to improving and developing its operation in a way that contributes to avoiding potential difficulties. When the exceptional case of the university’s operation is caused by compelling external conditions, such as epidemics, and the COVID-19 epidemic was an example of these compelling conditions in the past three years, it would be difficult for the university to implement a rescue plan independently. Hence, there should be cooperation with the government and the rest of the partners, stakeholders, financiers, and the board of trustees in a way that contributes in a way that contributes to the university’s continuity of operation, and this is what we have clearly seen by providing government support to many universities around the world, which contributes to overcoming the epidemic crisis. The most difficult condition ever, and which it is very compelling for HEIs to deal with, is to ensure the quality assurance of universities and higher education institutions in the afflicted areas and areas witnessing conflicts and wars. These wars lead to the fragmentation of any country, the collapse of its economic and social structure, the loss of qualified teaching staff, and the loss of a large number of students. This study seeks to provide a model for the latter case, which is the state of a country that is witnessing conflicts and wars that affect its higher education system (Syria as a case study). Certainly, wars have devastating effects on all sectors of any affected country, but the main focus of this research is to determine the damage that the war will cause to the higher education sector, how higher education institutions can implement an appropriate quality system, and what strategies, plans, curricula, and operating systems can be applied by universities in the event of the occurrence of war in a manner that ensures that the minimum required quality assurance standards are met. In the case under study for this research, I have chosen my country, Syria: a country that has been witnessing for about 11 years a war that does not seem to have an end, and there does not seem to be an end to the country’s tragedy or the process of building or reconstruction of what has been destroyed. Nor does it seem that there is any clear future for the country, its institutions, its universities, or its higher education system.
Keywords: quality assurance
Syrian universities
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis
Issue Date: 13-Jul-2022
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