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Title: In vivo imaging of chronic active lesions in multiple sclerosis
Author: Calvi, Alberto  
Haider, Lukas  
Prados Carrasco, Ferran  
Chard, Declan  
Barkhof, Frederik  
Others: University College London (UCL)
Universidad Oberta de Catalunya (UOC)
Citation: Calvi, A., Haider, L., Prados, F., Tur, C., Chard, D. T. & Barkhof, F. (2022). In vivo imaging of chronic active lesions in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 28(5), 683-690. doi: 10.1177/1352458520958589
Abstract: New clinical activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) is often accompanied by acute inflammation which subsides. However, there is growing evidence that a substantial proportion of lesions remain active well beyond the acute phase. Chronic active lesions are most frequently found in progressive MS and are characterised by a border of inflammation associated with iron-enriched cells, leading to ongoing tissue injury. Identifying imaging markers for chronic active lesions in vivo are thus a major research goal. We reviewed the literature on imaging of chronic active lesion in MS, focussing on ‘slowly expanding lesions’ (SELs), detected by volumetric longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ‘rim-positive’ lesions, identified by susceptibility iron-sensitive MRI. Both SELs and rim-positive lesions have been found to be prognostically relevant to future disability. Little is known about the co-occurrence of rims around SELs and their inter-relationship with other emerging techniques such as dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) and positron emission tomography (PET).
Keywords: multiple sclerosis
chronic active lesions
magnetic resonance imaging
positron emission tomography
Document type: info:eu-repo/semantics/review
Version: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
Issue Date: 1-Apr-2022
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